Reporting from:. Your name. Your email. Send Cancel. Check system status. Toggle navigation Menu. Name of resource. Problem URL. Describe the connection issue. SearchWorks Catalog Stanford Libraries. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Toggle facets Refine your results. Online 18 At the Library Resource type. Green 8 Medical Lane 5. English 25 Spanish 1. McClure, Peter Roger, 1. Call number. Organization as author. Volatile, lighter end petroleum following exposure to uv light Bingham and Nord, compounds are lost in the Freon extraction step and Five- and six-membered mouse skin initiated with benzo a pyrene Van Duuren ring compounds are removed during the silica gel cleanup and Goldschmidt, Dodecane is a potentiator of stage of the analysis and the results may be artificially benzo a pyrene and benzo a anthracene carcinogenic- low.
Natural products e. Dodecane and tetrade- siloxanes are sometimes measured and reported as part of cane promote papilloma growth on the skin of Swiss an ir analysis for petroleum hydrocarbons. The standard mice treated with dimethylbenzanthracene DMBA calibration methods are not applicable for quantitating and also produce severe dermal irritation Baxter and these compounds.
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Miller, ; Sice, Aromatic compounds target a variety of arating complex mixtures of compounds into the major systems and organs in humans and rodents Table 6. This separation facilitates the Most target the CNS, liver, kidney, and hemopoietic identification of compounds or related groups of com- system: many are irritants. The structurally most sim- pounds. Aliphatic alkanes compounds can be sepa- ple compound, benzene, is the most potent with the rated from the aromatic compounds in a mixture by most serious effects. In general, alkylbenzenes are CNS two common techniques: solvent extraction with col- depressants due to their affinity for nerve tissue Sand- umn chromatography or selective detector application.
A Human Leukemia Benzo a pyrene 20 7. Fluorene 13 4. Xylenes 8 2. By ex- inferences about the likely toxicities of compounds. This method of separation has been groups of compounds based first on molecular structure used most successfully with lower molecular weight, vola- i. The total mass of all com- for dealing with a complex mixture.
The methods have pounds in a subgroup is used with defined exposure been adapted for many different applications including scenarios to project a daily dose of that chemical sub- sample screening, product identification, detection limit group. These doses can then be compared with the ref- improvement, and quantitation of specific compounds.
For each reference compound, a U. EPA pub- mixture of chemicals present in petroleum into product lished oral RfD is identified or, for those reference com- fractions based on molecular weight and boiling point pounds without U. EPA published values, an oral ranges. The term fingerprinting is a general term that dose—response value has been developed from avail- can represent several different analysis techniques.
These methods are often referred to as product identi- Alkanes, cycloalkanes, and alkenes are treated simi- fication methods. Different fractions of PHCs produce larly because the limited literature on toxic effects as- unique patterns on a chromatogram and pattern recog- sociated with exposure to the cycloalkanes and alkenes nition algorithms are used to identify the products. While there are no specific herent advantages over other detection methods often toxicological data on the alkenes, evaluating them with used for the analysis of PHCs. Structural information the aromatics should not overly bias or underestimate from the ionization and fragmentation of molecules in risk estimates.
When The indicator compounds for this group of com- capillary GC columns are coupled to an MS, each eluted pounds and their assigned toxicity values are pre- peak is scanned over a predetermined mass range. C1 through C4 compounds are not Chromatographic peaks that overlap can be identified considered because their high volatility makes chronic or resolved.
Selected ion monitoring SIM is a refine- exposure unlikely. With limited information available ment of mass scanning that results in greater analyte on other toxic end points, relative potency of neurotox- specificity and lower sample detection limits by lim- iting the number of ions scanned per second. Assignment of the n-hexane RfD to capability for hydrocarbon compound identification and the first subgroup is health protective because n-pen- quantification necessary for realistic health risk as- tane, n-heptane, and n-octane may be associated with sessment purposes.
Toxicological Basis for New Approach The relative RfD difference between n-hexane and n- As described previously, toxicity values are available nonane is derived from a comparison of two subchronic for only a few of the PHC compounds. However, by inhalation studies. Petroleum Hydrocarbon Groups Alkanes C19 and greater were grouped together, with eicosane identified as a reference compound Ta- Proposed alternate ble 7.
Compounds in this group were C5—C8 n-Hexane Neurotoxicity 0. No quantitative tox- C9—C18 n-Nonane Neurotoxicity 0. Hernandez described the formation of hyperphagocytic Carpenter et al. Dunnick et al. IRIS recognizes this con- ence of the inert hydrocarbons in the liver. That designation is judged to pathological effects have been noted in the large body be inappropriate based on the presence of mild nasal of evidence in animal studies, and from the widespread lesions at the exposure level.
This outcome may further human use of mineral oil as a topical moisturizer and indicate that neurological lesions, not examined in the food additive, this study is considered unrepresentative ppm group, may be occurring since these two end of the toxicity of most white mineral oils. A NOAEL for n-hexane can ing study can therefore be used as a basis for the deri- thus be estimated using the standard assumption that vation of an RfD.
These values are all quite similar, ranging sure route. Even though the absorption of these com- with the exception of anthracene from 0. The limited systemic toxicity data on these once the compound is present in the blood stream, the compounds summarized in ATSDR, d indicate distribution to the target organs and, therefore, rela- that these structurally similar chemicals are similarly tive potency should be similar. Their toxic effects are also exerted on sim- A second justification for assigning n-nonane an RfD ilar organ systems, primarily the blood, kidney, and that is 10 times that for n-hexane is that the occupa- liver.
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This convention appropri- parison of lethal concentrations in rats for n-nonane ately reflects the uncertainty inherent in the estima- versus those for smaller alkanes. The alternate RfD is the lowest of tion and physiologically based pharmacokinetic model- those developed by U. EPA for those compounds: 0. This approach results in an over- estimating oral RfDs from inhalation data, cannot be estimate of risk for anthracene.
Analytical scheme for analysis of petroleum hydrocarbon mixtures for health risk evaluation purposes. A compound-specific risk assessment approach These values are converted to concentrations in soil should be used with C6 to C8 aromatic compounds line 1 in Fig. For each region or compound, the such as benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes.
In this example, a simplified child surrogate grouping approach; rather, they are evalu- soil ingestion exposure scenario has been used. Cancer potency factors exist for ben- RfD identified for that fraction line 3 of Fig. These zene and B a P Table 6. Potency values relative values are summed together line 5 to arrive at a total to B a P RPF are available for benzo a anthracene, hazard index, which can be compared to a chosen target indeno 1,2,3-cd pyrene, dibenzo a,h anthracene, chry- hazard index often 1.
If that hazard index exceeds the sene, benzo b fluoranthene, and benzo k fluoranthene target, then the individual hazard quotients should be U. Application of the Approach Analytical Procedure to Generate Required Data The integration of data generated for human health risk evaluation using this methodology is illustrated in GC is currently the most commonly used method for Fig. When kg TPH. The masses of alkanes and cycloalkanes and capillary columns are used with GC, quantitative and the masses of aromatics plus alkenes in each specified qualitative analysis of environmental samples can pro- carbon number region of the chromatograms would be vide data suitable for risk assessment purposes.
Weight percentage data of component pe- The recommended analytical procedure MA DEP, troleum hydrocarbons in unleaded gasoline [API PS-6 unpublished manuscript consists of two parts: one for from API ] were used in this example to estimate analyzing the volatile petroleum hydrocarbons VPH the concentration of petroleum hydrocarbons in the car- and another for analyzing the extractable petroleum bon number ranges e.
Application of the health evaluation methodology for child consumption of soil containing unleaded gasoline. The chromatographic areas beneath designated car- of requiring only one injection in the chromatograph, bon number ranges are calculated, along with the areas but was abandoned for the extractable fraction because for individual PAHs, and concentrations for each range of a gradual loss of PID response resulting from the are calculated.
Other groups have since successfully used the government document U. EPA method to address analytical and regula- tory requirements within their states. SIM mode of operation. The RfD for currently universally available for use in state regula- unleaded gasoline developed by U. EPA ; Table tory programs. This selec- fraction is within a factor of 10 of those calculated tive detector separation would have had the advantage using the whole product provisional RfD U.
Factors potentially contributing to differences reflect the potential toxicity of the entire weathered include: i 6. This additive approach assumes independence by the laboratory as alkenes, unidentified C8s, or al- of action and, if incorrect, could result in over- or under- kanes. These unknowns were classified as miscellane- estimation of the actual risk.
It is possible that their toxici- of chemicals assumed with the component approach. The oral RfDs established by U. The non- oped for whole products such as gasoline and jet fuel cancer health risks predicted by the two methodologies Table 1 , suggest that the toxicities of many PHCs, as were again in reasonable agreement.
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Thus, This methodology was designed to overcome the in- it does not appear that this approach will significantly terpretive difficulties posed by weathering of oil in the underestimate risk. By dividing the gas chromatogram into sections that correspond to empirically derived carbon number As a result of synthesizing the toxicological literature ranges, the necessity to know the identity of the origi- on PHCs into a workable health hazard evaluation nal product, or how many different petroleum products scheme, shortcomings in the database on hydrocarbon are contributing to the total concentration of an indi- toxicity became apparent.
These shortcomings do not vidual chemical or range, is eliminated. However, there relate so much to health end points as to information is some uncertainty in deciding the exact point of de- for specific chemicals or classes of chemicals. More non- marcation between compounds within a carbon number cancer toxicity testing data on compounds within each range. The only way to truly know the exact retention of the carbon number ranges identified in this paper times in a GC of all the compounds is to actually ana- would help confirm the appropriateness of the desig- lyze for each one, which is not practical.
For example, nated groupings and the designated indicator com- there may be some overlap between the retention time pounds. This testing should be conducted with a view of a straight chain hydrocarbon and a branched hydro- to providing a better understanding of the qualitative carbon that differ by only one carbon. The contribution differences in toxicity seen with increasing length and of an individual compound to the total concentration complexity of hydrocarbon.
Ex- the concentration of hydrocarbons within a particular perimental validation studies are needed to verify some carbon number range. A critical study should compare the toxicity of a complex mixture of Use of Ranges of Compounds Rather Than Whole hydrocarbons under controlled conditions to the toxici- Product ties of as many of the principal individual components as possible. The evaluation should determine the type One approach to assessing petroleum site risks is of interaction exhibited by the chemicals i.
The new components method reflects changes in the composition of a prod- Michael Murphy provided early suggestions for the general ap- uct. Uncertainty in comparison to a whole product ap- proach used here. Individuals providing substantial comments dur- ing the development of the methodology included Lisa Bradley, David proach should be reduced.
Finnigan the gasoline composition information presented in the paper. California ACGIH Petroleum hydrocarbons toxicity stud- ical Exposure Indices. Animal response to n-nonane vapor. Toxicology: The Basic ical Exposure Indices, 6th ed. Amdur, J. Doull, and C. McGraw-Hill, New York. Anderson, J. Recruitment Cavender, F. The subchronic inhalation toxicity of n-hexane and methyl trations in the sediments. Board Can. In Advances in Modern Environmental Toxicology.
API Holdworth, J. MacGregor, R. Call, and Departmental Report No.
IN ADDITION TO READING ONLINE, THIS TITLE IS AVAILABLE IN THESE FORMATS:
DR 21, January Lane, Eds. Princeton Scientific, Princeton. Letter to M. Butler, Clement Associates, Inc. Mat- Alkanes and Alkenes. Unpublished report prepared for the U. ATSDR a. Toxicological Profile for Automotive Gasoline. Couri, D. ATSDR b. Toxicological Profile for Fuel Oils. Public Couri, D. Toxicity and metabolism of the neu- Health Service, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, rotoxic hexacarbons n-hexane, 2-hexanone and 2,5-hexanedione.
ATSDR c. Crisp, D. Narcotic U. ATSDR d. Regulatory history and exper- carbons PAHs Update. Public Health Service, Agency for imental support of uncertainty safety factors. Baxter, C.
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Mechanism of mouse skin Dunnick, J. Carcinogenesis 8, — The acute toxicol- mice after inhalation exposure. Toxicology 57, — It evaporated easily and floated on water.
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JP-4 was a non-conductive liquid, prone to build up static electricity when being moved through pipes and tanks. As it is volatile and has a low flash point, the static discharge could cause a fire. Beginning in the mids an antistatic agent was added to the fuel to lower the charge buildup and decrease the corresponding risk of fires. Flow rates must be controlled, and all the equipment used must be electrically interconnected and well grounded. Commercial aviation uses a similar mixture under the name Jet-B , though without the additional corrosion inhibitors and icing inhibitors included in JP The desire for a less flammable, less hazardous fuel led the U.
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