Responses to these questions are limited to a number of choices. What are the differences and similarities between the death of late General Sanni Abacha when compared to that of General Muritala Mohammed all of Nigeria. Characteristics of Good Questions. Good questions should be clear, brief, concise and direct to the point.
They should be free from ambiguity. Good questions should be thought-provoking. They should suit the age, abilities, interest and characteristics of the particular learners or audience at hand. Gbamanja, Guidelines for Questioning. Role Playing. This method of teaching can be used for solving real life situational problems.
The technique of role lay develops practical professional skills and functioning knowledge.
It enables students in the classroom to act as stakeholders in an imagined scene. In a play role, the teacher selects an event that illuminates the topic of study and students are assigned roles, which will be played out, the role play will be concluded, with a reflection stage that reinforces the concepts introduced by the role play.
This method gives students the opportunity to explore together their feelings, attitudes, values and problem solving strategies. Role play also creates a stimulating environment that brings reality to life and intensify learners understanding of the event being played.
The problem with role playing method amongst others is that directing a role playing is complex. Also, some students may be too self-conscious and may not be able to play the role for other students to observe. This method entails a real life activity in a simple manner that communicates the idea to the learners.
Example, If the "use of money" is the topic in class; the teacher gets two students to act a trader and a customer scene, where the customer buys the items from the trader with the money, in this scene, the use of money is depicted in real life situation. This kind of simulation is better than mere verbal description.
Strategies for Elementary School Educators | Queens Online
Omieibi-David conceptualizes simulations as an imitation of real life situations that requires participants to play a role that involves them in interaction with other people or with elements of the environment concerned. The use of stimulation methods in classroom situations is devised to help students learn how things operate in reality. Students are encouraged to act out the same roles and make decisions likened to real life situations. Therefore, simulation helps students to practice and understand adult roles and also develop the skills necessary for a successful adult life. Simulation and games are used at all levels of education and creates both intrinsic and extrinsic motivation in the learner.
While simulation methods present the students realities of life in concrete and simple forms, they are innovative and a welcome change in the learning experiences as compared to the routine classroom learning. Simulation problems shooting areas lies in the fact that it is time consuming, very expensive, especially in an attempt to purchase a reasonable number for class use.
It also requires great classroom management. A demonstration involves showing, doing or telling the students the point of emphasis. It is mostly used as a technique within a method of teaching and a times as a method of teaching itself. Here the role of the teacher is to illustrate how to do something or illustrate a principle first by explaining the nature of the act verbally, followed by demonstrating the act in a systematic manner and later the students repeats the act. Here students are involved in dong things that will influence their behaviour patterns, through demonstrations, students are exposed to physical materials that will illustrate some meaning to their cognitive framework.
Direct experiences like this go a long way to enrich learning. Demonstration is useful mostly in imparting psychomotor skills and lessons that require practical knowledge. The gains of using demonstration method in teaching lies in the fact that it bridges the gap between theory and practice, enables learners to become good observers and generate their interest; students see immediate progress as a result of a correct effort and it enables the teacher to teach manipulative and operational skills.
The problems encountered in this method amongst others include the fact that students loose interest and confidence when they fail to repeat accurately; creativity and originality by students are hindered as students try to do it exactly the same way as their teacher did it and students have a limited opportunity to be familiar with learning materials. This is a teaching learning situation whereby students are given the opportunity to discover and find out things for themselves. This method is rooted in the heuristic teaching activity and problem solving; these are basically the major ingredients of modern science.
This method can be used with students at any acadmic level though more effective with students at the secondary and tertiary levels. Two types of discovery methods can be used by the teacher namely the structured method and the open discovery method. Structured Method: H ere the teacher gives a clear set of instructions that learners are to follow to discover a fact, idea or skill for themselves. Open Discovery Method: The teacher in this method presents a problem, gives some questions and directions that requires learners to find answers to.
Most Common Teaching Styles Used with Elementary School Students
Here, the teacher gives the learner the freedom to explore different perspectives, views, possibilities, and solutions to the problem. There are no stereo type answers as the learners arrive at different solutions to a problem, especially in the case of the open discovery method. In both situations, they are expected to find the solution within a specific time frame. Criteria for Selecting Teaching Methods.
The Subject Matter. The content of a subject determines what method to be used to achieve effectiveness in the teaching and learning process. Subjects could be science or arts oriented, and as such, they definitely require different teaching methods that suit such disciplines. Science subjects are better taught with the inquiry or discovery methods while the lecture method can be used in some art subjects depending in the content of the subject. Instructional Objectives. The instructional objectives a teacher intends to achieve at the end of a lesson, determines the choice of teaching method to use in teaching the subject.
Example from the objectives of a lesson, the teacher will know if the lesson intends to acquire new skills or illicit an emotional or aesthetic reaction from the students; knowledge of these will go a long way in determining which teaching method to use. The Learner. Example- a method used with the physically challenged cannot be used with the normal students. The time allotted to a subject on the school time-table should be considered when determining the choice of teaching method.
Methods like role-playing, simulations can be done within double periods. When there is little time to cover large scheme of work, then, the lecture method can be used, but the learners must be considered in every way. Instructional Materials.
- Maria, Adult learner.
- Nutrition in Gastrointestinal and Liver Diseases (Special Issue: Digestive Diseases 2003, 3).
- Encyclopedia of Stem Cell Research (2 Vol.Set).
- Common Teaching Styles in Elementary School?
These go a long way to determine what teaching methods to use in a given lesson e. The Classroom Environment. Classroom environment set a tone for learning and causes learners to behave in certain ways. It is important to consider the classroom environment in selecting an appropriate teaching method for a lesson. The space available in a class, ventilation, illumination and other teaching devices in a classroom, etc all these affects the choice of teaching methods to be used.
Curriculum is the planned and guided learning experiences and intended learning outcomes formulated through systematic reconstruction of knowledge and experiences for learners under the auspices of a school. Tanner and Tanner Curriculum to Offorma is a structural series of learning experiences intended for the education of the learners under the guidance of the teacher. Nnachi conceptualizes curriculum as a programme of education made as a guide to the teacher and learner in respect of procedure, content an context of the course of study under the guidance of the school for effective teaching and learning.
In summary of all the definitions above, curriculum is the totality of the systematically planned experiences which the school offers to the learners. The ability to put curriculum content and other instructional guidelines into practice inside the classroom can be referred to as curriculum implementation. Oforma stated that curriculum implementation is the transmission of the planned curriculum into the operational curriculum.
On the other hand, Ivowi viewed curriculum implementation as the process of putting all that have been planned as a curriculum process into practice in the classroom through the combined efforts of the teacher, learner, school administrator as well as the interaction with the physical facilities, instructional materials, psychological and social environment.
Teacher-Centered Approach to Learning
Therefore, curriculum implementation is the sole concern of the teacher, and the interaction of learners and other education administrators geared towards achieving the objectives of education. Teachers carry out the task of providing learning experiences by providing instruction; these instructions can be achieved through the use of various teaching methods that are made available.
Fundamentally, teaching is concerned with the attainment of maximum beneficiary learning for the learner. There are a variety of teaching methods, and it is through the use of such teaching methods that teachers are able to implement the school curriculum. In situations where teachers fail to use appropriate teaching methods, a good curriculum plan could turn out to be damaged.
The main purpose of curriculum implementation is to translate the ideas into a workable blueprint, and this can be achieved basically by using appropriate teaching methods in class. The secondary school curriculum as planned learning experiences provided to assist the learners in attaining the designated learning outcomes can be attained by the use of effective teaching methods.
The teacher through his teaching methods makes direct use of the curriculum, thereby implementing it. The teacher uses the appropriate teaching methods and resources to achieve learning.
Innovative teaching Techniques
Whenever a teacher is teaching a lesson through the means of various teaching methods, he is implementing the curriculum. The Way Forward. The following suggestions are made for effective use of teaching methods in the teaching and learning process. The instructional objectives a teacher intends to achieve by the end of the lesson determines to an extent the type of teaching methods. Teachers should try to match the instructional objectives to suit the teaching methods to be chosen for a lesson. The teacher must consider the age, interest, etc of the learner and ensures the right teaching methods and materials that will suit the learners are in place.
In choosing appropriate teaching methods, the teacher is encouraged to consider the time to be used for a lesson, as this will go a long way to determine also the type of teaching methods to use. The teacher should put into consideration the population of the class, the environment and the size of the class. This will help to determine a most suitable teaching method to use for a lesson and make it worthwhile.
The teacher is a vital factor in the success of an educational system in a nation. Teaching is an attempt to bring about desirable changes in human learning, abilities and behaviour. Effective implementation of the curriculum is dependant in the effective use of appropriate teaching methods in the classroom. Teaching methods are used to facilitate students learning and satisfaction.
A variety of the use of teaching methods is a must for teachers if learning is to be effective and efficient. There is need for a good teacher to be multi-talented in other to be conversant with the use of various teaching methods in the teaching and learning process. The teacher is a vital factor in the success of an educational system of a nation; therefore, teachers should be familiar with the principles underlying the choice of teaching methods.
A combination of teaching methods is encouraged for effective teaching. Reference s. Use of this Web site signifies your agreement to the terms and conditions. Special Issues. SciencePG Frontiers. Contact Us. Active listening is in many ways similar to play-by-play sportscasting where teachers describe activities and behaviors to the children while performing the action. Active listening techniques taught during every primary teacher training program also help at the moment of exchange between students when feeling remain improperly expressed.
Not only is active listening of big assistance in helping to resolve classroom conflicts, it also provides an aid to teachers by streaming directions and information to the primary students. Offering positive feedback is one way a primary educator can help educate and guide the students. Constructive feedback offers direct praise for a job well done.
By incorporating this method into the classroom, teacher acknowledge the children when they are carrying out some task or following directions. It also gives encouragement to other children to follow the lead of the child who has just received praise.
Praising a child for good behavior has a far better impact than punishing a student who is having a hard time following the rules. Children exhibit a sense of trust and interest in each other — this can be a focus area for teachers as a prospective method of teaching. Peer teaching provides encouragement to the children to help each other and also to work together.
If one child is excelling in an area where another child is experiencing difficulty then by teaming the two together in a joint project, they will be encouraged to learn from one another. Peer teaching as a primary teacher can also help in individual projects that can be presented to the peers. Working together often gives encouragement to learning and community building among the children. Creating classroom lists or job charts is a means of listing and tracking the daily duties that need completion.
Peer teaching can also be accomplished with individual projects that are then presented to classroom peers. Working together can encourage learning and community among children. Creating job charts or classroom lists is a way to list and track daily duties that need to be completed. Allow the children to select who is in charge for the day and who will complete specific tasks on the list. Working together encourages classroom harmony and allows children to take turns being in charge of a task. This further can build self-esteem and encourage communication. While many aspects of teaching in elementary school have to do with teacher to student interactions, teachers can also utilize professional development and outside learning options as a tool.
By keeping up with trends and new ideas in primary education, teachers are able to introduce new ideas and teaching methods into their classroom. Sarah Lipoff has been writing since Lipoff has worked as a K art teacher, museum educator and preschool teacher.