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Journal of Crop Improvement
Phytochemistry , 63— Zhu, J. Genomics 43, 25— Zong, Y. Precise base editing in rice, wheat and maize with a Cas9-cytidine deaminase fusion. The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author s and the copyright owner s are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice.
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Forgot Password? Suggest a Research Topic. Introduction In the current scenario, the most critical challenge faced by the human race is to provide food security for a growing population. TABLE 1. List of Cas9 modifications and its applications. TABLE 2. Jyothilakshmi Vadassery Dr. Aashish Ranjan Dr. Senjuti Sinharoy Dr. Amar Pal Singh Dr. Amarjeet Singh Dr. Shailesh Kumar Dr.
Ashutosh Pandey Ph. The Institute has been established to coincide with the 50th anniversary of India's independence as well as birth anniversary of Prof. The Institute's establishment coincides with the 50th anniversary of India's independence as well as birth anniversary of Prof. The formal announcement was made on November 30th This Institute has already placed India among the major contributors to plant genomics. It is hoped that in coming years, the ongoing efforts of NIPGR will allow India to emerge as one of the most important national and international resource institutes for material, knowledge and technologies in the areas of functional, structural, evolutionary and applied genomics of plants, including crop plants.
Genomics research is providing bridges between different branches of natural sciences and as a result it has seen logarithmic growth over last two decades. All biology research has been permeated by genomics and new ways of tailoring crops for the economic production of grains, vegetables, fruits, fibers, beverages, herbal medicines, pharmaceuticals and industrial molecules are emerging.
The world is on the eve of bountiful harvests for mitigation of hunger and malnutrition and heralding of healthy living. NIPGR aims to contribute in the achievement of such hopes arising out of the current pace of genomics research. It should be noted, however, that molecular breeding through MAS is somewhat limited in scope compared to genetic engineering or modification because: 1 it works only for traits already present in a crop; 2 it cannot be used effectively to breed crops which have long generation times e.
Several marker systems have been developed and are applied to a range of crop species. The advantages and disadvantages of these marker systems are provided in Table 1. These molecular techniques have been widely used to monitor differences in DNA sequence in and among species. They also allow the creation of new sources of genetic variation by introducing new and desirable traits from wild varieties into elite lines. The adoption of the new marker system, SNPs, is now highly preferred, with the increasing amount of sequence information, and the determination of gene function due to genomic research.
One of the major constraints in tomato cultivation and production are severe harvest losses caused by a number of pathogens, including viruses, bacteria, fungi, and nematodes. Farmers have adopted control measures, such as applications of agrochemicals and use of resistant lines. Although conventional breeding has had a significant impact on improving resistance of tomato, the time-consuming process of making crosses and backcrosses, and the selection of the desired resistant progeny make it difficult to react adequately to the evolution of new virulent pathogens.
Molecular markers are now being widely used for breeding tomato. Currently, tomato breeding through MAS has resulted in varieties with resistance or tolerance to one or more specific pathogens. A highly sensitive method for detecting DNA polymorphism. Genetic Map : A map of the relative positions of genetic loci on a chromosome, determined on the basis of how often the loci are inherited together. Linkage Map : A map of relative positions of genes on a chromosome. Genes inherited together are close to each other on the chromosome, and said to be linked. Microsatellites : Very short DNA motifs base pairs which occur as tandem repeats at numerous loci throughout the genome.
Also known as simple sequence repeats SSR , simple tandem repeats or simple repetitive sequences.