It is a way of organizing and synthesizing information obtained through a variety of discrete observations and nothing more. In sum, the contribution of etak is not to generate new primary information, but to provide a framework mental model; M. Gladwin , This quotation is of specific interest here since it is believed that the etak system functions according to gestalt principles based on mental models for orientation.
Hence, parameters such as distance, scope, scale, frames of reference, the star compass, currents, reefs, and other spatial and non-spatial information is amalgamed to form a mental model for the respective journey. The same is true for ancient or pre-modern navigation. Hutchins presents a nice example. He goes on arguing that the sun and the stars were the guides in Western navigation, before the discovery of the magnetic compass needle. The Pleiades and Arcturus have similar declensions they rise out of the same point in the eastern horizon and are 11 hours different in right ascension they are on opposite sides of the night sky , so one or the other would be in the sky of any night regardless of season.
Hutchins 93 Here we find at first sight practical knowledge applied in navigation, but the implicit knowledge evoked here is much more sophisticated than it seems. This linear constellation is not sufficient for orientation. In addition, the distances etak, stadia, or kenning need to be conceptualized. And it is argued here that he does not need to do so since this is implicit knowledge applied if needed.
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At any time the navigator can estimate distance and direction to known points such as the starting point. Hence, the difficult aspect is to retain a sense of direction especially when being out of sight of any landmarks as in dead reckoning navigation Gladwin ; Hutchins ; Oatley ; Sarfert This continuous application of change of location with respect to changing surroundings is embedded in implicit knowledge structures that evolve from practices.
How do ancient authors use and describe such navigating techniques on land and on sea? What is presupposed as implicit knowledge and what is construed en passant? The bases for these maps are proximal input clues from visual perception and other input systems , e.
These maps have the advantage to not only orient oneself, but also to anticipate movements ahead, i. These movements depend on the changes of positions with respect to objects, or, landmarks. As such they are manifested in texts via different degrees of specificity. These degrees imply also the importance of the different reference frames. Cognitive maps entail not only representations of distal objects and coordinates, but also representation of spatial relations in general including unknown and not yet perceived objects. The focus here is on distal as opposed to proximal perceptions of objects.
The ability is on the one hand to mentally triangulate different distances for orientation based on the body and landmark clues, but also the ability to mentally represent spatial environments and coordinates These representations are evidently necessary to orient and navigate in known and unknown terrain. Arguably, these cognitive maps are based on universal cognitive processes that are biologically and evolutionary wired in the cognitive apparatus.
As already argued above, it is believed here that mental models of spatial orientation are based on mental triangulation processes that endorse a cognitive compass. This cognitive compass is a conceptual representational system that computes information clues to form gestalt-like structures based on different input patters. As such we find different perspectives, distances proximal, medial, distal , perspectives, frames of reference, scope, scale and other features that go into mental triangulation.
Hence, different intermodal processes are at work here. These processes can be inferred from stories Micronesian navigators tell, but also from ancient texts in which authors describe different landmarks and toponyms that are based on implicit knowledge structures. The next section deals with landmarks as reference points specifically. It is argued here that they are a part of the respective mental models for orientation keeping track on distances and frames of reference to navigate.
While there are many other ways to represent the date and carry out the computations of navigation, the chart is the key representational artifact. The most obvious property of maps or a chart have correspondences with positions in a depicted large scale space. That is always true.
But charts designed for navigation are something more than this. This can be the above mentioned mountains, a river, a house, or even a tree, but also cities in general to measure distances. Landmarks are point references external to the person. They identify a specific geographical location. Landmarks are used as proximate course- maintaining devices. Not only do they identify beginnings and endings, but also serve to maintain course.
By landmarks and the environment the following quote by Fowler and Turner summarizes the function of landmarks or geographic features in particular. The naming of geographic features as part of territorial marking and orientation is a common occurrence in all cultures […] topographical names reflect specific cultural interests and historical developments within the possibilities given by the morphology of the language. More specifically they conclude that topographical names indicate particular cultural interests as represented by the language repertoire or the language-specific affordances.
Indeed, data presented in this volume show a rather dense linguistic system of topographical reference frames represented, e. As is argued above human beings instantiate relations between objects relying on various frames of reference that, as the name implies, serve as reference points to locate participants. These linguistic coordinates are important for the description of topographical spatial relations and for the description of projective relations in general Malotki 16; Thiering ; Hence, a linguistic reference system is not a geographical or mathematical abstract concept, but a means of spatial or semiotic configuration in the linguistic encoding.
We adapt this rather semiotic idea to survey ancient written text forms. In the course of this paper some selected fundamental spatial concepts and representations are assumed based on anthropomorphological spatial knowledge in ancient cultures. Culture- specific structures and behaviours are examined reflecting experiences with local environmental conditions, e. Fowler and Turner summarize this aspect as follows: If peoples choose to orient themselves to coasts or seas, rivers or mountains, the sun's path, or some other feature, some aspect of this will usually show up in their place-names.
People in ancient cultures use indeed place names and coastal lines in their specific environments to construct a linguistically dense topographical reference system for orientation. We indeed have to parse out the implicit underlying presumptions which we call common sense geography. Intermediate Conclusion This paper argues for certain fundamental aspects of spatial cognition and topographical coordinates to apply to ancient geographic description of common sense geography as implicit knowledge structures.
Clearly, some aspects of spatial cognition are culture specific, being shaped, for instance, by culture-specific practices of spatial orientation and organization. In our project, language, texts, pictures, monuments play a double role as external representation.
On the one hand these sources are throwing light on structures of cognition and on the other they indicate some fundamental structures of knowledge, i. We assume that different data points from a broad range of sources lead us to our common sense geography. This theoretical point of departure attempts to distinguish some basic aspects of spatial cognition in ancient geography. Some might be candidates for universals although they may find different expressions in different languages.
Examples of concern here will be deixis and other references to and conceptualizations of space, but also landmarks, itineraries, winds for direction, measurements, spatial data and other reference systems. Such spatial concepts are shown to be of crucial importance to describe mental models as cognitive representational systems that entail different forms of implicit and explicit knowledge.
We have seen that such systems are very powerful with respect, e. People of the Mediterranean Sea lived in complex environments, travelled long distances into dangerous terrain and usually made their way back safely as do Micronesian seafarers using dead reckoning systems. Survival in their habitats depended on evolved capacities typical for human beings to efficiently manage orientation in space via mental models. Moreover, it depended on ontogenetic learning about the geography with its many specific features and on culturally transmitted, linguistically encoded spatial reference systems sufficiently precise to foster the process of forming cognitive maps of their land and sea.
Linguistic information about the encoding of such spatial concepts in our project will be provided based on classical texts from the same time frame, e.
These concepts are topography-based and related to environmental landmarks. Such landmarks are mountains, rivers and lakes, and also own experience when walking to and returning from various distant places. Hence, spatial classification implies locating objects i.
Writers and navigators parse up their environment into an important and necessary topography or spatial matrix which is represented in the language and practices dead reckoning via a vast matrix of mountain, river or place names the parsing up into degrees of specificity will show this process.
Traditional stories, myths, and other text forms function as chronological topologies of places, i. These aspects find indeed their way into the cultural-specific mental models. The interrelation of ancient cultures, environments, and written language is at focus in this project. As a working hypothesis it is assumed here that the environment acts upon mental concepts which have proven to be functioning and hence upon language and action which in turn influence the mental construction of space. This should be of no surprise since every language presents language-specific affordances, i.
As such, spatial concepts are linguistically represented and differently based on the respective written language system. Such ideas of space are also crucial for ancient mental models of geographic knowledge of the environment. This project will also show the rich linguistic inventory of detailed spatial concepts encoded in different text forms.
Certain practices, habits, and environmental landmarks clearly show repercussions upon language as will be shown in some selected linguistic examples and text excerpts. In North America, this concept is known as the linguistic relativity principle or Sapir—Whorf theory cf. The idea is supported here that languages differ in the way they shape our world perspectives, but believe that non-linguistic information, i.
Hence, the current research aims to show the ideas of Raumbilder as a web of intertwined interaction of language, culture, and cognition. The importance of reference to space, the social context of giving and taking, and references to non-verbal communication shape the content of the vocabulary.
The characteristics and peculiarities of everyday interaction and speech follow from the fact that speech is complemented by, and related to, other semiotic systems. Hopefully, it will be shown that spatially implicit knowledge and orientation is embedded in cultural and linguistic practices of implicit and explicit knowledge systems. This has been outlined above as the guiding principle, i. These histories are represented by cultural and linguistic practices of common sense geography.
Hence, the notion above arguing in favour of an influence of non-linguistic information upon spatial language and categorization is of crucial importance in this project. References Ameka, F. Elements of th grammar of space in Ewe. In: S. Grammars of Space. Cambridge U. Anderson, J.
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Description On the basis of a semantic analysis of dimension terms, this book develops a theory about knowledge of spatial objects, which is significant for cognitive linguistics and artificial intelligence. This new approach to knowledge structure evolves in a three-step process: - adoption of the linguistic theory with its elements, principles and representational levels, - implementation of the latter in a Prolog prototype, and - integration of the prototype into a large natural language understanding system.
The study documents interdisciplinary research at work: the model of spatial knowledge is the fruit of the cooperative efforts of linguists, computational linguists, and knowledge engineers, undertaken in that logical and chronological order. The book offers a two-level approach to semantic interpretation and proves that it works by means of a precise computer implementation, which in turn is applied to support a task-independent knowledge representation system.
Each of these stages is described in detail, and the links are made explicit, thus retracing the evolution from theory to practice. Product details Format Paperback pages Dimensions x x 8. Illustrations note IX, p. Other books in this series. Cyclic Difference Sets Leonard D. Add to basket. Homotopical Algebra Daniel G. Stability of Queueing Networks Maury Bramson. Combinatorial Stochastic Processes Jim Pitman.
Minimal Surfaces in R 3 J. Task 2: Searching for Elegant Terms Bibliography Pragmatics Deixis - An introduction The deictic center Different usages of deixis Deictic gestural usage Deictic symbolic usage Non-deictic anaphoric usage Non-deictic non-anaphoric usage Exercises to different usages of deixis Different forms of deixis Personal deixis Exercises to personal deixis Temporal deixis Exercises to temporal deixis Spatial deixis Exercises to spatial deixis Social deixis Exercises to Social deixis Discourse deixis Exercises to discourse deixis Conclusion and further exercises The use of "thou" and "you" Introduction or: Why deal with pronouns of address?
Development of "thou" and "you" How did "you" come into play? Why - and when - did "thou" disappear? Check you knowledge Part 3 Explore "thou" and "you" in Shakespeare's plays "Thou" after the Early Modern English period Excursus: The use of "thou" in church The use of "thou" by the Quakers Check you knowledge Part 4 A few closing remarks Insults Theoretical background Grice's Cooperative Principle and Maxims of Conversation Politeness theory and face Face-threatening acts Distance, power and impostion Exercises to the theoretical background Definition: What is an insult?
Complement Clauses Restrictive vs.