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Another trend in management education is a focus on teaching in a broader context— that is, introductory management courses are increasingly being taught with less emphasis on theory alone and more emphasis on application of concepts. Teaching students how to apply management concepts successfully often involves focusing more on skills development and the human side of the organization. This trend requires that textbooks cover theoretical concepts within a flexible framework that enables instructors to make use of interactive tools such as case studies, exercises, and projects.

It also dictates that a text be as relevant to students as possible. Hence, while this book draws examples and cases from older large firms like Ford, IBM, and Nissan, it also makes extensive use of newer firms such as Google, Netflix, Facebook, Starbucks, Urban Outfitters, and others. This textbook represents a synthesis of these trends toward a more manageable and practical approach.

By combining concise text discussion, standard pedagogical tools, lively and current content, an emphasis on organizational behavior, and exciting skills development material, Fundamentals of Management answers the need for a new approach to management education. This book provides almost limitless flexibility, a solid foundation of knowledge-based material, and an action-oriented learning dimension unique in the field.

Indeed, over half a million students were introduced to the field of management using the first seven editions of this book. This eighth edition builds solidly on the successes of the earlier editions. One of the important organizational factors affected by changes in the external environment is jobs and employment. For example, economic downturns result in higher unemployment and place constraints on staffing and production quotas for managers.


Not only does the external environment affect the number of jobs available, but it also impacts how jobs are managed and created. Changing conditions can create demands for more temporary work and alternative work arrangements B. Degree of change is characterized as being dynamic or stable 2. In a dynamic environment, components of the environment change frequently. If change is minimal, the environment is called a stable environment.

Technology and the Manager's Job Changing and Improving the Way Managers Manage Technology includes the equipment, tools or operating processes to make work more efficient. In some cases, human labor has been replaced by electronic and computer equipment. Technology has also impacted information enabling work to be done anywhere and anytime.

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In turn, management is impacted by technology while attempting to manage virtual employees and in the way they plan, organize, lead and control. Teaching Tips: Many students assume that the loss of jobs to technology is a bad thing.

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What they may not think about are the positives dynamics that technology can create for the average worker. Questions for students to consider: Is management easier or harder with all the available technology? What benefits does technology provide and what problems does technology pose for a employees and b managers? Which technologies have been most useful to you personally thus far?

Do you think they will remain useful to you as you begin your career? Why or why not? If the number of components and the need for sophisticated knowledge is minimal, the environment is classified as simple. If a number of dissimilar components and a high need for sophisticated knowledge exist, the environment is complex. Chapter 2 - The Management Environment 5. Because uncertainty is a threat to organizational effectiveness, managers try to minimize environmental uncertainty.

See Exhibit for an identification of some of the most common stakeholders.

Fundamentals of management

Stakeholder relationship management is important for two reasons: a It can lead to improved predictability of environmental changes, more successful innovation, greater degrees of trust among stakeholders, and greater or- ganizational flexibility to reduce the impact of change. The questions presented in this dilemma revolve around the right to privacy and the investors need to know about the stability of leadership. Jobs had always been seen as a strong advocate in advancing technology, and to Apple investors his status in the company could reflect on their decisions to extend or withdraw their holdings in the company.

After the writing of this text, Steven Jobs died from cancer on October 5th , His resignation was announced on August 24, , citing "Unfortunately, that day has come," wrote Jobs, for he could "no longer meet [his] duties and expectations as Apple's CEO". Questions for students to consider: Do the heads of publicly traded firms have a right to medical privacy? What stakeholders do you think are most important in this situation? What responsibilities do organizations have to stakeholders in situations like this?

What ethical implications might arise in such a situation? Students may also be asked how they would feel if their private health information was required by their employer or worse yet, if it was required to be posted on the internet! Teaching Notes 6. Just as individuals have a personality, so, too, do organizations. What is Organizational Culture?

Organizational culture is the shared values, principles, traditions, and ways of doing things that influence the way organizational members act. This definition im- plies: a Individuals perceive organizational culture based on what they see, hear, or experience within the organization.

It describes, rather than evaluates. How can Culture Be Assessed? Where Culture Comes From? Chapter 2 - The Management Environment 2. How Do Employees Learn the Culture? Culture is transmitted principally through stories, rituals, material symbols, and language. These stories typically involve a narrative of significant events or people. This special lingo acts as a common denominator to unite members of a particular culture. Teaching Notes 1. Strong cultures are found in organizations where key values are intensely held and widely shared.

Most organizations have moderate-to-strong cultures. Chapter 2 — The Management Environment 3. Strong cultures can create predictability, orderliness, and consistency without the need for written documentation. Constraints from organizational culture are rarely explicit. The link between corporate values and managerial behavior is fairly straightforward. The culture conveys to managers what is appropriate behavior.

Teaching Notes 9. The external environment refers to factors, forces, situations, and events outside the organization that affects its performance. The external environment is important because it poses constraints and challenges to managers. There are three ways that the external environment affects managers: its impact on jobs and employment, the amount of environmental uncertainty, and the nature of stakeholder relationships.

Organizational culture affects managers in two ways: through its effect on what employees do and how they behave, and through its effect on what managers do as they plan, organize, lead, and control. Answer: The omnipotent view supports the idea that a manager is directly responsible for the success and failure of the organization.

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If the goals and decisions managers choose are correct, then the organization should thrive. According to this view, management decisions are often flawed and poorly implemented due to factors beyond their direct control. Describe the six external environment components. Why is it important for managers to understand these components?

Federal, state, and local governments can influence what organizations can and cannot do. Sociocultural conditions include the changing expectations Chapter 2 — The Management Environment of society. Societal values, customs, and tastes can change, and managers must be aware of these changes. Technological conditions have changed more rapidly than any other element of the general environment. Global factors include global competitors and global consumer markets. How has the changed economy affected what managers do?

Find two or three examples in current business periodicals of activities and practices that organizations are using. Discuss them in light of the changed environment. Students may find examples of how organizations are dealing with a general level of uncertainty regarding job security and wages. On the bright side, some students may find articles on innovative tactics companies are using to do more with less and how organizations are now leveraging limited resources to provide a more exciting and challenging job for employees.

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Why is it important for managers to pay attention to demographic trends and shifts? Answer - As demographics change, so do the defining characteristics of employees and customers. Managers must adapt to these changes in order to properly motivate their employees and meet the needs of customers. For example, as the Baby Boomers are on the verge of retirement, managers are faced with a younger workforce with different ideas of work and organizational commitment.

This change in society will also present opportunities as more seniors will demand a greater emphasis on health care and other services important to an aging population. What is environmental uncertainty? What impact does it have on managers and organizations? Find two examples in current business periodicals that illustrate how environmental uncertainty affects organizations.

Fundamentals of Management 8th Edition by Robbins Victoria City, Victoria

Students should find articles on organizations that operate in varying degrees of uncertainty. Firms that operate in technology intensive markets, such as computers or cell phones, will typically experience a high degree of uncertainty. Managers in these firms will have to work hard to minimize the impact of behavioral variables such as stress on the workforce. On the other hand, firms that operate in a less dynamic environment have managers that are less stressed by constant change in the environment.

What are the implications for managing the external environment? Answer — Organizations depend on their environment and their stakeholders as a source of inputs and a recipient of outputs. Good relationships can lead to organizational outcomes such as improved predictability of environmental changes, more successful innovations, greater degrees of trust among stakeholders, and greater flexibility in acting to reduce the impact of change.